European Union (EU): The EU comprises 28 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Unless otherwise noted, OECD data on the EU include all 28 nations.

Involuntarily out-of-field (IOF) employment: Employment in a job not related to the field of one’s highest degree because a job in that field was not available. The IOF rate is the proportion of all employed individuals who report IOF employment.

Labor force: A subset of the population that includes both those who are employed and those who are not working but seeking work (unemployed); other individuals are not considered to be in the labor force.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): An international organization of 36 countries headquartered in Paris, France. The member countries are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czechia, Estonia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States. Among its many activities, the OECD compiles social, economic, and science and technology statistics for all member and selected nonmember countries.

Postdoc: A temporary position awarded in academia, industry, government, or a nonprofit organization, primarily for gaining additional education and training in research after completion of a doctorate.

Skilled technical workforce (STW): Workers in occupations that use significant levels of S&E expertise and technical knowledge and whose educational attainment is less than a bachelor’s degree.

Stay rate: The proportion of foreign recipients of U.S. S&E doctorates who stay in the United States after receiving their doctorate.

Workforce: A subset of the labor force that includes only employed individuals.

Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACS: American Community Survey

BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics

CPS: Current Population Survey

EU: European Union

FY: fiscal year

IOF: involuntarily out-of-field

NCSES: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics

NSB: National Science Board

NSCG: National Survey of College Graduates

NSF: National Science Foundation

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OES: Occupational Employment Statistics

R&D: research and development

S&E: science and engineering

SDR: Survey of Doctorate Recipients

SED: Survey of Earned Doctorates

SEH: science, engineering, and health

SESTAT: Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System

STEM: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics

STW: skilled technical workforce

USCIS: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services