Acknowledgments and Citation


The National Science Board extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Science Foundation and to the many others, too numerous to list individually, who contributed to the preparation of this report.

Beethika Khan, Program Director, Science and Engineering Indicators Program of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES), had primary responsibility for the report under the leadership of Emilda B. Rivers, Director, NCSES; and Arthur W. Lupia, Assistant Director of the Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate.

The report benefited from numerous contributions from NCSES staff. John Jankowski (Director, NCSES R&D Statistics Program) provided continuing input and review about the data and conclusions documented in the report. Ronda Britt, Michael Gibbons, Christopher Pece, and Raymond Wolfe responded to queries about the data in their respective R&D surveys and provided special tabulations where needed. Jock Black provided advice on statistical issues. Gary Anderson, Audrey Kindlon, and Francisco Moris provided technical input on particular issues covered by the report. May Aydin, Catherine Corlies, and Rajinder Raut coordinated the report’s publication process and managed the development of its digital platform. Christine Hamel and Tanya Gore conducted editorial and composition review.

SRI International, Center for Innovation Strategy and Policy, assisted with report preparation. Steve Deitz and Christina Freyman provided especially large contributions to data review and report and graphics production. RTI International provided editing services. Staff at Penobscot Bay Media, LLC (PenBay Media) created the report site. The following persons and agencies reviewed this report:

Martin Grueber, TEConomy Partners LLC

Kei Koizumi, The George Washington University

Vladimir Lopez-Bassols

National Science Foundation

Office of Science and Technology Policy

Bureau of Economic Analysis

Department of Homeland Security

National Institutes of Health

The National Science Board is especially grateful to the Committee on National Science and Engineering Policy for overseeing preparation of the volume and to the National Science Board Office, under the direction of John Veysey, which provided vital coordination throughout the project. Nadine Lymn led the outreach and dissemination efforts. Matthew Wilson and Reba Bandyopadhyay served as Board Office Liaisons to the committee. Beethika Khan, Carol Robbins, and Anne Emig were the Executive Secretaries.


National Science Board, National Science Foundation. 2020. Research and Development: U.S. Trends and International Comparisons. Science and Engineering Indicators 2020. NSB-2020-3. Alexandria, VA. Available at