European Union (EU): The EU comprises 28 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Unless otherwise noted, data on the EU include all 28 nations.
Gross domestic product (GDP): The market value of goods and services produced within a country. It is one of the main measures in a country’s national income and product accounts, which record the value and composition of national output and the distribution of the incomes generated in this production (BEA 2015).
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): An international organization of 36 countries, headquartered in Paris, France. The member countries are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Among its many activities, the OECD compiles social, economic, and science and technology statistics for all member and selected nonmember countries.
R&D: Research and experimental development comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge—including knowledge of humankind, culture, and society—and to devise new applications of available knowledge (OECD 2015).
Basic research: Experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundations of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view.
Applied research: Original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge; directed primarily toward a specific, practical aim or objective.
Experimental development: Systematic work, drawing on knowledge gained from research and practical experience and producing additional knowledge, which is directed to producing new products or processes or to improving existing products or processes.
R&D intensity: A measure of R&D expenditures relative to size, production, financial, or other characteristics for a given R&D-performing unit (e.g., country, sector, company). Examples include the R&D-to-GDP and R&D-to-value-added ratios.
R&D plant: Includes both facilities and major equipment necessary for the execution of an R&D program. These include the purchase, construction, manufacture, rehabilitation, or major improvement of physical assets such as land, major fixed equipment, and supporting infrastructure like a sewer line or housing at a remote location. R&D plant also includes the acquisition, design, or production of major movable equipment, such as mass spectrometers, research vessels, DNA sequencers, and other movable major instruments for use in R&D activities.
Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations
ANBERD: Analytical Business Enterprise R&D
ARRA: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
DOC: Department of Commerce
DOD: Department of Defense
DOE: Department of Energy
DOT: Department of Transportation
EU: European Union
FFRDC: federally funded research and development center
FY: fiscal year
GBARD: government budget allocations for R&D
GDP: gross domestic product
GUF: general university funds
HHS: Department of Health and Human Services
ISIC: International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities
NAICS: North American Industry Classification System
NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NCSES: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics
NIH: National Institutes of Health
NSF: National Science Foundation
OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
PPP: purchasing power parity
PST: professional, scientific, and technical
R&D: research and experimental development
S&E: science and engineering
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
USDA: Department of Agriculture