European Union (EU): The EU comprises 28 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Unless otherwise noted, data on the EU include all 28 nations.

Gross domestic product (GDP): The market value of goods and services produced within a country. It is one of the main measures in a country’s national income and product accounts, which record the value and composition of national output and the distribution of the incomes generated in this production (BEA 2015).

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): An international organization of 36 countries, headquartered in Paris, France. The member countries are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Among its many activities, the OECD compiles social, economic, and science and technology statistics for all member and selected nonmember countries.

R&D: Research and experimental development comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge—including knowledge of humankind, culture, and society—and to devise new applications of available knowledge (OECD 2015).

Basic research: Experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundations of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view.

Applied research: Original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge; directed primarily toward a specific, practical aim or objective.

Experimental development: Systematic work, drawing on knowledge gained from research and practical experience and producing additional knowledge, which is directed to producing new products or processes or to improving existing products or processes.

R&D intensity: A measure of R&D expenditures relative to size, production, financial, or other characteristics for a given R&D-performing unit (e.g., country, sector, company). Examples include the R&D-to-GDP and R&D-to-value-added ratios.

R&D plant: Includes both facilities and major equipment necessary for the execution of an R&D program. These include the purchase, construction, manufacture, rehabilitation, or major improvement of physical assets such as land, major fixed equipment, and supporting infrastructure like a sewer line or housing at a remote location. R&D plant also includes the acquisition, design, or production of major movable equipment, such as mass spectrometers, research vessels, DNA sequencers, and other movable major instruments for use in R&D activities.

Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations

ANBERD: Analytical Business Enterprise R&D

ARRA: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

DOC: Department of Commerce

DOD: Department of Defense

DOE: Department of Energy

DOT: Department of Transportation

EU: European Union

FFRDC: federally funded research and development center

FY: fiscal year

GBARD: government budget allocations for R&D

GDP: gross domestic product

GUF: general university funds

HHS: Department of Health and Human Services

ISIC: International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities

NAICS: North American Industry Classification System

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NCSES: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics

NIH: National Institutes of Health

NSF: National Science Foundation

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PPP: purchasing power parity

PST: professional, scientific, and technical

R&D: research and experimental development

S&E: science and engineering

UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

USDA: Department of Agriculture