1. 1 For more information on the OECD’s methodology in identifying R&D intensive industries, see the Technical Appendix and Galindo-Rueda F, Verger F. 2016. OECD Taxonomy of Economic Activities Based on R&D Intensity. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2016/04, OECD Publishing, Paris. Accessed 18 April 2019.

  2. 2 Foreign content share of the pharmaceuticals industry is not available.

  3. 3 For a discussion of the various factors that have contributed to the stagnation of Japan’s economy, see Funabashi Y, Kushner B, editors. 2015. Examining Japan’s Lost Decades. NY: Routledge.