Artificial intelligence: The ability of machines to learn and draw on prior experiences to accomplish new tasks, sometimes similar to what human beings can do (Manning 2020).

Citizen science: Public participation in the scientific process in ways that can include forming research questions, conducting experiments, collecting or analyzing data, interpreting results, making new discoveries, developing technologies and applications, or solving complex problems (FedCCS 2019).

Climate change: Any distinct change in measures of climate lasting for a long period. Climate change means major changes in temperature, rainfall, snowfall, or wind patterns lasting for decades or longer. Climate change may result from natural factors or human activities. Global warming is often the focus of climate change discussion (Royal Society/NAS 2020).

COVID-19: Disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, labeled by the World Health Organization in February 2020 (WHO 2020).

Global warming: An average increase in the Earth’s temperature. Increases in temperatures in the Earth’s atmosphere can contribute to changes in global climate patterns. Global warming can be considered part of climate change along with changes in precipitation, sea level, and so on. (See Indicators 2020 report Science and Technology: Public Attitudes, Knowledge, and Interest.)

Greenhouse effect: Atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide, trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. Increases in the concentration of these gases contribute to global warming. (See Indicators 2020 report Science and Technology: Public Attitudes, Knowledge, and Interest.)

Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations

AI: artificial intelligence

COVID: coronavirus disease

GSS: General Social Survey

R&D: research and development

S&E: science and engineering

S&T: science and technology

SARS-CoV-2: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

STEM: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics