Acknowledgments and Citation


The National Science Board extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Science Foundation and to the many others, too numerous to list individually, who contributed to the preparation of this report.

Beethika Khan, Program Director, Science and Engineering Indicators Program of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES), had primary responsibility for the report under the leadership of Emilda B. Rivers, Director, NCSES; and Arthur W. Lupia, Assistant Director of the Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences Directorate.

May Aydin, Catherine Corlies, and Rajinder Raut coordinated the report’s publication process and managed the development of its digital platform. Christine Hamel and Tanya Gore conducted editorial and composition review.

Other NCSES staff who contributed to the report include Jaquelina Falkenheim, Karen Hamrick, Kelly Kang, Carol Robbins, Karen White, Matthew Williams, and Michael Yamaner.

Outside of NSF, Anthony Carnevale and Rolf Lehming also contributed.

SRI International, Center for Innovation Strategy and Policy, assisted with report preparation including the production of indicators based on data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education System. Steve Deitz provided an especially large contribution to the report. RTI International provided editing services. Staff at Penobscot Bay Media, LLC (Penbay Media) created the report site. The following persons and agencies reviewed this report:

Rajika Bhandari, Institute of International Education

Suzanne Day, Harvard University

Peter Henderson, University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Hironao Okahana, Council of Graduate Schools

Nicole Smith, Georgetown University

Jonathan M. Turk, American Council on Education

National Science Foundation

Department of Homeland Security

Office of Science and Technology Policy

The National Science Board is especially grateful to the Committee on National Science and Engineering Policy for overseeing preparation of the volume and to the National Science Board Office, under the direction of John Veysey, which provided vital coordination throughout the project. Nadine Lymn led the outreach and dissemination efforts. Matthew Wilson and Reba Bandyopadhyay served as Board Office Liaisons to the committee. Beethika Khan and Carol Robbins were the Executive Secretaries.


National Science Board, National Science Foundation. 2019. Higher Education in Science and Engineering. Science and Engineering Indicators 2020. NSB-2019-7. Alexandria, VA. Available at