The U.S. higher education system consists of a diversity of institutional types that address different student populations and needs in S&E education. Across degree levels, S&E fields continue to grow. However, many groups of Americans are still underrepresented among S&E degree recipients. The United States remains a top destination for foreign students, especially in S&E fields; more foreign students continue to earn U.S. S&E degrees. The data, however, indicate a recent decline in international student enrollment at U.S. academic institutions. Maintaining the preeminence of U.S. S&E higher education, while serving Americans of all backgrounds, represents a continuing aspiration.