European Union (EU-27): With the exit of the United Kingdom in 2020, the EU comprises 27 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden. Unless otherwise noted, data on the EU include all 27 nations.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): An international organization of 37 countries, headquartered in Paris, France. The member countries are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Among its many activities, OECD compiles social, economic, and science and technology statistics for all member and selected nonmember countries. Costa Rica became the 38th member of the OECD in May 2021; however, the country’s data have not yet been included in OECD’s Main Science and Technology Indicators.

Research and experimental development (R&D): R&D comprises creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge—including knowledge of humankind, culture, and society—and to devise new applications of available knowledge (OECD 2015).

Basic research: Experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundations of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view.

Applied research: Original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge; directed primarily toward a specific, practical aim or objective.

Experimental development: Systematic work, drawing on knowledge gained from research and practical experience and producing additional knowledge, which is directed to producing new products or processes or to improving existing products or processes.

R&D intensity: A measure of R&D expenditures relative to size, production, financial, or other characteristics for a given R&D-performing unit (e.g., country, sector, company). Examples include the R&D-to-GDP ratio, which is widely used as the measure of a nation’s overall R&D intensity, and R&D-to-sales ratio, which is frequently used to gauge the R&D intensity of a business or industry.

R&D plant: Includes both facilities and major equipment necessary for the execution of an R&D program. These include the purchase, construction, manufacture, rehabilitation, or major improvement of physical assets, such as land, major fixed equipment, and supporting infrastructure like a sewer line or housing at a remote location. R&D plant also includes the acquisition, design, or production of major movable equipment, such as mass spectrometers, research vessels, DNA sequencers, and other movable major instruments for use in R&D activities.

Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations

ANBERD: Analytical Business Enterprise R&D

COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019

EU: European Union

FFRDC: federally funded research and development center

FY: fiscal year

GBARD: government budget allocations for R&D

GERD: gross domestic expenditures on R&D

GDP: gross domestic product (see [BEA 2015])

GUF: general university funds

ISIC: International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities

NAICS: North American Industry Classification System

NCSES: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PPP: purchasing power parity

R&D: research and experimental development

S&E: science and engineering

UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization