Acknowledgments and Citation


The National Science Board extends its appreciation to the staff of the National Science Foundation and to the many others, too numerous to list individually, who contributed to the preparation of this report.

This report was produced under the leadership of Amy Burke, Program Director, Science and Engineering Indicators Program of the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES); Emilda B. Rivers, Director, NCSES; and Vipin Arora, Deputy Director, NCSES.

The report benefitted from extensive contributions from NCSES staff. Matthew Williams provided advice on statistical issues. Carol Robbins and Karen White served in administrative roles. May Aydin, Catherine Corlies, and Rajinder Raut coordinated the report’s publication process and managed the development of its digital platform. Christine Hamel and Tanya Gore conducted editorial and composition review.

SRI International, Center for Innovation Strategy and Policy, assisted with report preparation. Jessica Avery, Claire Lecornu, and Lucien Randazzese of SRI International all provided especially large contributions to the report. Science-Metrix provided data preparation and content analysis. Vladimir Lopez-Bassols assisted with editorial and composition review. Nathan Yates at RTI International provided editing services. Nancy Gough at BETAH Associates and Michelle Goryn at SRI International provided editorial assistance. Staff at Penobscot Bay Media, LLC (PenBay Media), created the report site. The following persons and agencies reviewed this report:

Carolina Castaldi, Utrecht University

Jennifer Kuan, California State University, Monterey Bay

Ben Shneiderman, University of Maryland

Tom Guevara, Indiana University

Bureau of Economic Analysis

Office of Science and Technology Policy

National Science Foundation

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

National Institute for Standards and Technology

The National Science Board is especially grateful to the Committee on National Science and Engineering Policy for overseeing preparation of the volume and to the National Science Board Office, under the direction of John Veysey, which provided vital coordination throughout the project. Nadine Lymn led the outreach and dissemination efforts. Reba Bandyopadhyay and Portia Flowers served as Board Office Liaisons to the committee. Carol Robbins, May Aydin, and Anne Emig were the Executive Secretaries.


National Science Board, National Science Foundation. 2022. Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation. Science and Engineering Indicators 2022. NSB-2022-4. Alexandria, VA. Available at