This report identifies the key current trends in the performance and funding of the U.S. research and experimental development (R&D) enterprise. The discussion covers the main sectors responsible for U.S. R&D: businesses, the federal government, nonfederal governments, higher education institutions, and nonprofit organizations. At numerous points, the report also directly contrasts these U.S. R&D indicators with broadly comparable data from the world’s other major economies.

This report is organized into four major sections addressing the following topics: the recent trends (particularly over the last 5–10 years) in U.S. R&D performance and funding, both for the nation in total and across the major performing and funding sectors; comparisons of these U.S. R&D indicators to those of the world’s other leading economies; a more detailed account of the U.S. business sector’s large role in the nation’s overall R&D activity; and further detail on the federal government’s roles in conducting and funding U.S. R&D. For definitions of key terms used in this report, see the Glossary section.

An expanded account of the R&D performed by higher education institutions is provided by separate thematic reports in the Indicators 2022 series: “Publications Output: U.S. Trends and International Comparisons” and “Academic Research and Development.”