8In the United States, educational attainment has risen over time (see https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/educational-attainment/cps-historical-time-series.html, accessed 30 June 2021).
9For a detailed discussion on other aspects of education-related debt, see National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES). 2020. Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities 2018, Education-Related Debt. NSF 20-301. Available at https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsf20301/report.
11Industry or business includes all nonacademic sectors, including self-employment, private for-profit and private nonprofit, and government.
13In 2020, 95% of doctorate recipients who reported citizenship status responded to the question on postgraduation commitments (95% of U.S. citizens and permanent residents and 94% of temporary visa holders). See detailed table 43.
15For detailed data on underrepresented minorities, see National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES). 2020. Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2020. NSF 19-304. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation.