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Research & Development (R&D) Activity
Showing out of 291 results found
  • Reference

    Definitions of Research and Development: An Annotated Compilation of Official Sources | II. U.S. Business Enterprise R&D

    Definition

    1.174-2 Definition of research and development expenditures. (a) In general. (1) The term research or experimental expenditures , as used in section 174, means expenditures incurred in connection with the taxpayer’s trade or business which represent research and development costs in the experimen...

  • Reference

    Definitions of Research and Development: An Annotated Compilation of Official Sources | V. R&D in National Accounts and Globalization Manuals

    Definition

    10.103 Intellectual property products include the results of research and development (R&D). Research and [experimental] development consists of the value of expenditures on creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, cul...

  • Reference

    Definitions of Research and Development: An Annotated Compilation of Official Sources | II. U.S. Business Enterprise R&D

    Description

    The Annual Business Survey (ABS) is the primary source of information on R&D for nonfarm, for-profit businesses operating in the United States with one to nine employees. For businesses with one or more employees, ABS also collects data on innovation, technology, intellectual property, business o...

  • Analysis | Working Paper

    The Geography of Self-Reported Innovation: Results from the 2017 Annual Business Survey

    Defining Self-Reported Innovation Rates

    Until the 1990s, the measurement of innovation was largely limited to utility patents and expenditures on research and development. Recognition that utility patents are imperfect and incomplete measures of invention (much less of innovation) and that R&D expenditures are inputs to the innovation ...

  • Analysis | Working Paper

    Using Mechanical Turk in Study of Individual Innovation | Phase 2 Assessing the Prevalence and Characteristics of Innovators on MTurk

    Findings

    The survey included a definition of innovation, vignettes describing products to help clarify the definition of innovation, and screening questions about the nature of claimed innovations. Findings compare favorably to other similar studies. The estimated incidence of individual innovation in thi...

  • Data Tables | Data Tables (Individual)

    Using Mechanical Turk in Study of Individual Innovation | Phase 2 Assessing the Prevalence and Characteristics of Innovators on MTurk

    Intellectual property protection of innovation: 2019

    Innovation is typically studied within businesses, but other sectors of the economy, such as governments and the household sector, can also undertake innovation activity. In order to fully understand innovation at the economy and society level, innovation must be understood beyond the business se...

  • Analysis | Reports

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation | Invention Indicators: Protecting Useful Ideas

    Characteristics of Patented Inventors

    Patenting activity is unevenly distributed among men and women, with men much more likely to be named as inventors on patents issued, according to recent analyses by the USPTO and WIPO. While the two analyses used different datasets and different measures of patenting and participation, both foun...

  • Data Tables | Data Tables (Individual)

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation | Supplemental Tables

    Citation of S&E articles in USPTO utility patents, by cited field, cited author country, and patent sector: 2013–20

    Governments, academia, and business all contribute to the interrelated system of invention, knowledge transfer, and innovation. Patenting activities—an indicator of invention—are increasingly international, with middle-income countries increasing their share of patents granted worldwide. Trademar...

  • Analysis | Reports

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation

    Conclusion

    A dynamic system of innovation activities, including invention, the transfer of knowledge, and the introduction of new products and processes, generates outcomes that range from new modes of mobile communication to new vaccines to counter a pandemic. Historically, participation has tended to be l...

  • Analysis | Reports

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation | Invention Indicators: Protecting Useful Ideas

    Contributors to U.S. Patent Activity

    USPTO patent records provide industry, technology areas, and geographical inventor information for all patents registered in the United States, including patents granted to individuals and to foreign entities. More information on the patent data used in this report is available in the Technical A...