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Showing out of 99 results found
  • Analysis | Reports

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation | Knowledge Transfer Indicators: Making Information Available

    Business Collaborations in Published Literature

    All parties benefit when business, academia, and government agencies collaborate. Through collaboration, the participants gain access to advanced tools, emerging technologies, unpublished or private data, and technical expertise. An indicator of such collaborations is the authorship data of peer-...

  • Data Tables | Data Tables (Individual)

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation | Supplemental Tables

    Citation of S&E articles in USPTO utility patents, by cited field, cited author country, and patent sector: 2013–20

    Governments, academia, and business all contribute to the interrelated system of invention, knowledge transfer, and innovation. Patenting activities—an indicator of invention—are increasingly international, with middle-income countries increasing their share of patents granted worldwide. Trademar...

  • Figure

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation | Knowledge Transfer Indicators: Making Information Available

    Coauthored business-sector publications with other academic, government, and foreign institutions: 2008 and 2020

    Governments, academia, and business all contribute to the interrelated system of invention, knowledge transfer, and innovation. Patenting activities—an indicator of invention—are increasingly international, with middle-income countries increasing their share of patents granted worldwide. Trademar...

  • Analysis | Reports

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation

    Innovation Indicators: Introducing New Products and Processes

    The previous sections of this report examined indicators of invention output and knowledge transfer activities. As described earlier, invention represents a subset of R&D output that includes new and useful processes, machines, manufactures, or compositions of matter, or any new and useful improv...

  • Data Tables | Data Tables (Individual)

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation | Supplemental Tables

    International patent families granted in textile and paper machines, by region, country, or economy: 1998–2020

    Governments, academia, and business all contribute to the interrelated system of invention, knowledge transfer, and innovation. Patenting activities—an indicator of invention—are increasingly international, with middle-income countries increasing their share of patents granted worldwide. Trademar...

  • Analysis | Reports

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation

    Invention Indicators: Protecting Useful Ideas

    As described in the introduction, R&D activities from all parts of society create new knowledge (Image INV-1, see Introduction). A large share of this new knowledge is intended as a public good and disclosed to the scientific community and to the public via scientific literature. This activity is...

  • Analysis | Reports

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation

    Knowledge Transfer Indicators: Making Information Available

    As described in the previous Invention Indicators: Protecting Useful Ideas section, the output of R&D, both formal and informal, includes scientific knowledge, inventions (i.e., new and useful processes, machines, manufactures, or compositions of matter, or any new and useful improvements thereof...

  • Figure

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation | Knowledge Transfer Indicators: Making Information Available

    Log scale of citations of U.S. S&E articles in USPTO utility patents, by selected patent sector and S&E article field cited: 2020

    Governments, academia, and business all contribute to the interrelated system of invention, knowledge transfer, and innovation. Patenting activities—an indicator of invention—are increasingly international, with middle-income countries increasing their share of patents granted worldwide. Trademar...

  • Analysis | Reports

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation | Knowledge Transfer Indicators: Making Information Available

    Publications Cited in Patents

    When peer-reviewed publications like those described above are cited in patent documents, the linkage between the two documents provides an indicator of knowledge transfer from the scientific literature to the patent. These indicators show the disproportionately large role of academic publication...

  • Analysis | Reports

    Invention, Knowledge Transfer, and Innovation | Innovation Indicators: Introducing New Products and Processes

    Sidebar: Rapid Innovation and the Development of the COVID-19 Vaccine

    Epidemiologists, doctors, and other scientists worked under extreme time pressure to develop, test, and produce effective vaccines for COVID-19. The contributions of globally recognized universities, government agencies, nonprofit initiatives, and pharmaceutical companies demonstrate the kind of ...